Pressure exerted by the blood on the wall of the arteries is called as blood pressure. Elevation or high pressure exerted by the blood on the wall of the arteries is defined as hypertension (HTN).Blood pressure measured 140/90mm of Hg is termed as high blood pressure. In today’s era it is one of the most common lifestyle disorder .High incidences are seen in both males and females. Advancement in age increases the risk for HTN.

Causes and risk factors:

Depending upon the causation HTN is classified into two types-primary and secondary. In most of the cases hypertension is caused due to some unknown causes (Primary HTN).It is also known as essential Hypertension. While in some cases hypertension can be caused due to certain underlying pathology (Secondary HTN).HTN can be secondary to various medical conditions like diseases of the adrenal gland, thyroid gland, pregnancy, chronic kidney diseases. Certain medications diet pills or birth control pills can also induce hypertension. Diabetes and Obesity can also predispose HTN. Stress, smoking, alcohol and excessive intake of salt are the other major contributing factors.

Clinical presentations:

Most of the times patient suffering from HTN remains asymptomatic. In majority of cases it is accidentally diagnosed. The person suffering from hypertension can complain of heaviness of head, lightheadness or headache. He can present with vertigo or fainting spells. A hissing or buzzing sound in ear can be heard by the patient. In some cases hypertension is diagnosed when the patient faces some ophthalmic complaints. On undergoing an ophthalmic checkup hypertensive retinopathy is detected. If hypertension is caused due to some underlying causes. Various other complaints can also be seen. Excessive elevation of the blood pressure (≥ 180/100) can land up the patient in certain emergency states like hypertensive encephalopathy, altered level of consciousness, retinal papiloedema or hemorrhages.

Diagnosis and investigations:

Symptoms narrated by the patient along with examination carried out by the doctor will help in confirming the diagnosis. Monitoring of the blood pressure is diagnostic. A persistent high level of blood pressure measures at least 3 days consecutively is necessary. The blood pressure is monitored with the help of an instrument sphygmomanometer. A digital recording machines are easily available at the counters. An ophthalmic examination needs to be carried out. If the doctor suspects any underlying pathology certain investigations like Routine blood test, urine analysis, blood sugar levels, lipid profile, ECG, kidney and liver function test can be advised.



Hypertension in most of the cases is a lifestyle diseases hence change is lifestyle is necessary. Having healthy food, regular exercises, quitting of smoking and limiting the intake of alcohol are the essential steps which needs to be adopted. In cases of obesity, weight reduction is necessary. Regular monitoring of the blood pressure is must. Anti hypertensive medications is the main line of treatment. In cases of underlying causes correction is must to control the levels of blood pressure. Measure for managing stress is essential like meditation, yoga or indulgence in some positive recreational activity.

Other modes of treatment:

The other modes of treatment can also be effective in treating hypertension. Homoeopathy is a science which deals with individualization and considers a person in a holistic way. This science can be helpful in combating the symptoms. The Ayurvedic system of medicine which uses herbs and synthetic derivates can also be beneficial in combating the complaints.

Recent update:

Researchers in South Carolina revealed in a study that men with higher fitness levels can delay the development of hypertension as compared to those with lower fitness levels.

As per a study published by the American college of cardiology people with fat around their abdominal area are at greater risk of developing hypertension when compared to those with similar body mass index but fat concentrations elsewhere on the body.

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