Depression is a mood disorder affecting the feeling, thought and behavior of a person. It is a constant feeling of sadness and lack of interest in any activity. It is one of the most common mental affection seen

Causes and risk factors:

The exact cause of depression is not known. However there are varieties of factors that can cause depression. Various events in life like death of loved ones, disappointment in love, sexual abuse, foster care, failure in career etc can lead to depression. Certain use of medications also contribute to it. Hormonal changes and neurotransmitter imbalance can also lead to depression. Depression can be a manifestation of variety of psychological disorders like anxiety disorder or post traumatic disorder. Addiction to alcohol or other substance abuse can make the person land up in depression.

Clinical presentations:

A person suffering from depression is down with feeling of sadness. The person is irritable and lack pleasure in all. Nothing pleases him. Hopelessness is seen. At the physical level the energy is down, the person is drowsy. Small arguments or contradiction evokes anger and irritability. These people become more prone for developing diseases. Depression can not only be caused due to substance abuse but it can also make a person addicted to some substances. The reaction to emotions is excess. Social isolation is seen. Most of the time these people have persistent suicidal thoughts

Diagnosis and investigations:

Diagnosis can be made on the basis of the symptoms narrated by the patients and  on the  basis of complete psychiatric evaluation. Reviewing of the history is the most essential step. All the details are obtained from the family and friends. Close observation in such cases is essential. Investigations can be advised in cases where the doctor suspects any pathology.


Anti psychotic or anti depressive medications are the first lines of treatment in such cases. Psychotherapy plays a major role in this. It comprises of counseling and interpersonal therapy. Cognitive behavioral therapy has found to be effective in such cases. In rare cases electroconvulsive therapy and trans cranial magnetic stimulation is needed. Support and care by family and friends will help the patient to cope up with the complaints. Indulgence in positive recreational cativity, meditation care effective.

Other Modes of treatment

The other modes of treatment can also be effective in treating depression. Homoeopathy is a science which deals with individualization considers a person in a holistic way. This science can be helpful in combating the symptoms.

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